By Christopher Ehret
Nilo-Saharan is likely one of the 4 significant language households at the African continent. It extends eastwards from the Niger to Western Ethiopia and additional southwards to Northern Tanzania. whereas the prestige of Nilo-Saharan as a phylum has been mostly authorized on account that Greenberg (1963), the inner class has remained arguable. the current quantity is meant as a decisive contribution in the direction of the verification of the inner courting of the Nilo-Saharan languages. utilizing ordinary sound correspondences for verifying degrees of inner dating was once started within the Eighties, yet this paintings takes up the implications completed hitherto and keeps from this foundation. New resources are considered: except reconstructing consonants, vowels and tone, the research additionally contains derivational and inflectional morphology in addition to pronouns. The publication includes major elements. the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is devoted to the reconstruction of consonants, vowels and tone, to the subclassification of Nilo-Saharan, verbal and nominal derivation, inflection and the pronominal approach. the second one half (chapter nine) is an etymological dictionary of 1,606 roots, complemented via annotations and reflexes of the roots within the specific languages. greater than 10,000 roots are stated at once. The research of the 1st half (chapter 2-8) is predicated at the info prepared in bankruptcy nine. crucial results of Ehret's paintings matters the connection of Songay within the Nilo-Saharan context. the writer argues convincingly that Songay might be considered as an imperative member of the Nilo-Saharan family members. Connections with Mande has to be noticeable as borrowings from Songay into Mande. additionally, the confirmed normal sound correspondences and the reconstructed Proto-Nilo-Saharan vocabulary permit for drawing up phonological histories of every language and distinguishing among mortgage as opposed to long term inherited phrases.
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Additional info for A Historical-Comparative Reconstruction of Nilo-Saharan
According to one, complex words are formed by head-to-head movement in phrasal syntax; the other assumes that complex words are generated by an independent morphological system. We have considered four empirical domains in which the predictions of the latter theory are borne out, whereas die former theory needs additional stipulations to account for the data. 46 Beyond Morphology The relevant phenomena Involve the impossibility of stranding syntactic material in word formation, the range of patterns of inheritance of argument structure and case, the co-existence of two different types of complex heads and the syntactic opacity of complex words.
In addition, the functor's specified arguments can bind an argument of the nonhead. Free morphemes are not functors, since otherwise they could not be free. Hence, there is no inheritance in compounds. It would take us too far Arguments for Word Syntax 27 afield to discuss the theory of argument structure composition in any detail, but see Di Sciullo and Williams 1987, Booij and van Haaften 1988, Rappaport Hovav and Levin 1992, Josefsson 1998, Lieber and Baayen 1993, and Flag 1998 for some concrete proposals.
Moreover, exactly these same complex heads are opaque for further syntactic operations (for example, no excorporation is possible). This means that, in effect, a morphological component is proposed that deals exactly with those complex heads that do not yield straightforwardly to a syntactic analvsis. 2,5 U N D E R G E N E R A T I O N BY THE MOVEMENT ACCOUNT The two theories of word formation also diverge in the predictions they make with respect to the possible functions of nonheads of complex words.
A Historical-Comparative Reconstruction of Nilo-Saharan by Christopher Ehret