By Marcel Nelson
Offering a severe account of the cave in of the FTAA negotiations and changes to energy family members within the Americas, this ebook argues that the cave in used to be rooted in a "crisis of authority" brought on by way of turning out to be competition within the Americas to US management and the neo-liberal reforms that were promoted through Washington because the Nineteen Eighties.
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Extra resources for A History of the FTAA: From Hegemony to Fragmentation in the Americas
The institutional design of the FTAA negotiations, detailed previously, attempted to render unclear the continued relationship between national state apparatuses and their respective civil societies in regard to the items that were being negotiated. This obfuscation was premised on a neoliberal ideology that seeks to separate economic concerns from potentially disruptive politicized decision-making structures and portrays the sphere of global governance as being situated beyond the reach of national civil societies.
Hegemony, according to Gramsci, within national social formations and through the institutions of civil and political society, universalizes the interests of a particular class. 31 However, this approach to international institutions does not account for the possibility that a crisis of authority may appear upon such a terrain. The growing assertiveness of states like Brazil and China in international forums such as the Doha round of the WTO requires a new conceptual framework that goes beyond viewing international institutions as “pillows” to counterhegemony.
5 One must look, first, to the relationship between civil society and the nation-state and, second, to the relationship between nation-states and global governance structures. As we will see, these two types of relationships are not equivalent to one another but constitute two sets of interrelated yet separate dialectical relationships arrayed across different scales or institutional levels. By viewing the integral state as a dialectical union between civil society and political society, which are part of a totality, it follows that global governance structures and multilateral negotiations need to be approached not as supranational institutional ensembles with their own civil societies but rather as additional institutional elements within political society that “enwrap” both national state institutions and civil societies.
A History of the FTAA: From Hegemony to Fragmentation in the Americas by Marcel Nelson