By World Bank, UNICEF
Why abolish college charges in Africa? the reply turns out visible: to accomplish the fitting to schooling for all and therefore advertise equitable participation in financial progress and political motion. despite the fact that, relocating from a procedure in response to person charges, which stifled enrollment of the poorest and such a lot weak youngsters, to 1 of loose easy schooling for everybody has hidden expenditures if the trouble is unplanned or underplanned. The speedy and dramatic inflow of scholars can overburden the schooling approach and compromise caliber as a result of a scarcity of certified lecturers, a rise in school measurement, and the lack of school-level investment. one of these end result merits not anyone. Abolishing tuition charges in Africa starts off with a comparative evaluate of the techniques, demanding situations, and classes realized by way of 5 international locations that had already abolished college charges: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Mozambique. the following chapters delineate the particular studies of every of the international locations in making plans and imposing their guidelines. This quantity may be helpful to nationwide coverage makers and their improvement companions civil society, the personal zone, improvement enterprises in efforts to open entry to a top quality uncomplicated schooling to all.
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Extra info for Abolishing School Fees in Africa: Lessons Learned in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique (Africa Human Development Series)
In some poor, rural areas no more than 10–15 percent of girls are enrolled. Data from Mozambique’s case study show that, in 2004, the GER for the two upper grades of primary education (grades 6 and 7) ranged from 50 percent for the poorest 20 percent of the families to 87 percent for the richest 20 percent. Similarly, data from Malawi’s case show that, in 1990, the net enrollment ratio was only 33 percent for children from the poorest quintile as compared to 75 percent for the richest. 10 • Abolishing School Fees in Africa • • However, in 1997, following fee abolition, the corresponding figures were 76 percent and 80 percent, respectively.
POLITICAL LEADERSHIP When fee abolition is a major departure from current policies, strong political leadership at the highest level is a prerequisite for successful implementation. All five case studies emphasize this factor. Thus, the president or prime minister plays a leading role in advocating and explaining the policy, there is strong consensus at the level of the cabinet, and the ministry of education works closely with the appropriate administration officials in defining and implementing the policy.
In addition, quality of education declined due to inadequate textbooks and learning materials, lack of in-service teacher training, low morale of teachers, lack of inspection, physical dilapidation of classrooms and lack of professionalism and managerial experience of head teachers. [To help address the shortage in funding] . . the Government was encouraging private initiative at all levels. The reliance on parental contribution was steadily increasing. . The introduction of cost sharing at the primary level in particular had a detrimental impact on the school attendance of poor, contributing to the declining GER in recent years.
Abolishing School Fees in Africa: Lessons Learned in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Mozambique (Africa Human Development Series) by World Bank, UNICEF