By Shahid Javed Burki, Guillermo E. Perry, Sara Calvo
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Extra info for Annual World Bank Conference on Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: proceedings of a conference held in ...
When most of the region dismantled its protectionist regimes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the World Bank was there to help with technical assistance and with structural adjustment and trade-reform loans. We also supported the establishment or strengthening of safety nets to protect the poor from any potential short-term consequences of the rapid pace of reform. And now we support a policy of "open regionalism" for Latin America and the Caribbean. Why Do We Use the Term "Open Regionalism"?
First, if the PTA takes the form of deep integration in the form of an EU-core style Common Market, with common external tariff and internal factor mobility, and possibly even a parliament and attempts at a unified foreign policy, then the member nations are forming something close to the federal United States or India. In this case, the trade dimension cannot be judged in isolation from a very much bigger picture. S. attitude to the 1957 Treaty of Rome. This is true even though our view of PTAs was quite clearly hostile, as it had been about Britain's Imperial Preference during the GATT negotiations and had indeed been throughout our two-centuries' history.
Let us first consider the evolution of tariff and non-tariff measures affecting imports from the rest of the world. Figures 1 and 2 show that protectionist policies have been dismantled in the major LAC countries during the last decade, and especially since 1991. Furthermore, Table 1 shows the same pattern for Mercosur countries when comparing the average tariffs imposed by its member countries in 1986 with those included in the Ouro Preto Treaty objectives. 1 These facts leave no doubt that regionalism has gone hand in hand with unilateral trade opening in the last decade, in sharp contrast with what happened in the 1960s and 1970s.
Annual World Bank Conference on Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: proceedings of a conference held in ... by Shahid Javed Burki, Guillermo E. Perry, Sara Calvo